Passage 7: Modern crimes: image theft
Personal blogging is the new form of journal writing – only better, because more people can read your entries online! Nowadays, most travelers are expected to post their photographs, in addition to their commentary on blogs for friends and family to see. But imagine ﬁnding your vacation photos in an advertisement, copied from the Internet without your permission. Although you, as an amateur photographer, might have thought they were “just pictures,” someone else decided they had value and used them to make money. That person stole your property. Photo theft, or image theft is a growing problem, especially for professional photographers who advertise on the Web. Any photo can easily be copied and used used illegally and often the people who do it don’t realize they are committing a crime. The ones who do probably know won’t be caught. So how can you protect yourself and your images? Professional photography associations recommend using photo-editing programs to add text to your photos. For example, write the word SAMPLE on the pictures. More sophisticated software allows you to make the pictures “ﬂash” or add moving images that can’t be copied. Finally, give your photo ﬁles unusual names so that they won’t be found easily when people search the Internet for common subjects like “the beach.”
32. The article tells photographers how to _______.
Passage 8: What are businesses doing about global warming?
The issue of climate change has been discussed in scientiﬁc and business circles for over two decades. However only in recent years has there been agreement that is crucial that something be done to reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming, and that businesses as well as governments and individual citizens must act. The main problem is the rising level of carbon dioxide, which has been shown to warm the earth’s atmosphere, and which is still being produced in damaging quantities by power plants and motor vehicles. A few forward-thinking companies are investing in renewable energy, reducing their use of oil and coal, recycling more, and consuming less in order to reduce their "carbon footprint" (their total amount of carbon emissions). Although companies like these are preparing to live in a reduced-carbon world, most businesses have been slow in reducing their negative impact on the environment. They might be encouraged to ﬁnally start changing their environmental policies through a combination of legal, political, and business pressures. Laws on carbon emissions are likely to be affected by changes in government policy. In addition, the effects of new weather patterns involving high winds, hurricanes, ﬁres, and ﬂoods are making insurance companies look seriously at climate change as more and more money is continually being paid out for the damage caused by these events. Companies are being forced by their insurers to think of such environmental damage as a signiﬁcant business risk.
36. The main idea of the article is that _______